Catherine of Aragon (Queen of England)

Female 1485 - 1536  (50 years)

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  • Name Catherine of Aragon (Queen of England) 
    Born 16 Dec 1485  Archbishops Palace, Alcala de Henares, Madrid, Spain Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Female 
    Died 07 Jan 1536  Kimbolton Castle Kimbolton, Cambridgeshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID I739  King of Scots
    Last Modified 14 Feb 2009 

    Family 1 Arthur Tudor (Prince of Wales),   b. 20 Sep 1486, Winchester, Hampshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 02 Apr 1502, Ludlow Castle Ludlow, Shropshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 15 years) 
    Married 14 Nov 1501  St Pauls Cathedral , London, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Last Modified 14 Feb 2009 
    Family ID F305  Group Sheet

    Family 2 Henry VIII King of England and King of Ireland,   b. 28 Jun 1491, Greenwich Palace Greenwich, London Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 28 Jan 1547, Whitehall Palace London, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 55 years) 
    Married 11 Jun 1509  Greenwich Church Greenwich, London Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Divorced 1533 
     1. Mary I Queen of England and Queen of Ireland,   b. 18 Feb 1516, Palace of Placentia Greenwich, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 17 Nov 1558, St James Palace London, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 42 years)
    Last Modified 13 Feb 2009 
    Family ID F298  Group Sheet

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 16 Dec 1485 - Archbishops Palace, Alcala de Henares, Madrid, Spain Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarried - 14 Nov 1501 - St Pauls Cathedral , London, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarried - 11 Jun 1509 - Greenwich Church Greenwich, London Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 07 Jan 1536 - Kimbolton Castle Kimbolton, Cambridgeshire, England Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Maps 
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    Pin Legend  : Address       : Location       : City/Town       : County/Shire       : State/Province       : Country       : Not Set

  • Photos
    Catherine of Aragon
    Catherine of Aragon
    Personal Collection

  • Notes 
    • Catherine of Aragon (16 December 1485 ? 7 January 1536) also known as Katherine or Katharine; (Castilian Infanta Catalina de Aragón y Castilla or Catalina de Trastámara y Trastámara) was the Queen of England as the first wife of Henry VIII of England, and Princess of Wales by her first marriage to Arthur, Prince of Wales. She was also an Infanta of Castille and Aragon.

      Henry's attempt to have their 24-year marriage annulled set in motion a chain of events that led to England's break with the Roman Catholic Church. Henry was dissatisfied because their sons died in infancy, leaving only one of their six children, Princess Mary (later Queen Mary I) as heiress presumptive, at a time when there was no established precedent for a woman on the throne. When Pope Clement VII refused to annul the marriage, Henry defied him by assuming supremacy over religious matters. This allowed him to marry Anne Boleyn on the judgment of clergy in England, without reference to the Pope. He was motivated by the hope of fathering a male heir to the Tudor dynasty. Catherine refused to accept Henry as Supreme Head of the Church of England and considered herself the King's rightful wife and Queen until her death.

      Catherine's contemporaries said that she was "more beloved than any queen who ever reigned".[1] Over the years, numerous artistic and cultural works have been dedicated to her, written about her, or mentioned her, including some by her husband Henry VIII, who wrote "Grene growth the holy" for her, and Juan Luis Vives, who dedicated "The Instituation of Christian Women" to her.[2]

      Early life (1485-1501)
      Catherine was born at the Archbishop's Palace in Alcalá de Henares, in Madrid, on the night of 16 December 1485. She was the youngest child of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. Her siblings were Isabella, Queen of Portugal; Juan, Prince of Asturias; Joanna of Castile; and Maria, Queen of Portugal. She was aunt to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, John III of Portugal and their wives, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Henry I of Portugal and Isabella, Queen of Denmark. She was a granddaughter of John II of Castile and John II of Aragon. She was quite short in stature[3] with long golden auburn hair, wide blue eyes, round face, and a fair complexion.[4] She was descended from the English royal house as her great-grandmother Katherine of Lancaster, after whom she was named, and her great-great-grandmother Philippa of Lancaster, were both daughters of John of Gaunt and granddaughters of Edward III of England. Consequently she was third cousin of her father-in-law, Henry VII, and fourth cousin of her mother-in-law Elizabeth of York.

      When Catherine was aged two, in the spring of 1488, a tournement took place, and in the interval the Ambassadors from England came to pay their respects to her mother Queen Isabella, Catherine was seated upon her mother's lap,the ambassadors said that Catherine was "singulary beautiful"[5]. She was educated by a tutor, Alessandro Geraldini, who was a clerk in Holy Orders. She studied religion, the Classics, the Latin histories, canon and civil law. She had a strong religious upbringing and developed a faith that would play a major role in later life.[6] She learned to speak,read and write in Spanish and Latin, and spoke French and Greek. She was taught basic domestic skills, such as needlepoint, lacemaking, embroidery, music and dancing.[7] The great scholar Erasmus would later say that Catherine "loved good literature which she had studied with success since childhood".[8]

      At an early age, she was considered a suitable wife for Arthur, Prince of Wales, first son of Henry VII of England and heir to the throne. They were married by proxy on 19 May 1499, and corresponded in Latin until Arthur turned 15 and it was decided that they were old enough to be married. A portrait by Juan de Flandes, entitled "Portrait of an Infanta" circa.1496, is thought to be of either Catherine of her sister Joanna. An ongoing debate about which Infanta it is has come to no conclusion. The fact that the young girl holds a rose may be seen as symbolism regarding the House of Tudor, and has been seen as evidence as it being Catherine, as Catherine was betrothed to its Heir. Elisa Bermejo, however, considers the flower as an attribute related to the sitter's very young age. David Starkey considers the portrait to be of Catherine, and has used the image, along with other portraits of the six wives of Henry VIII, on the cover of his book "The Six Wives: The Queens of Henry VIII". The fact that the sitter appears to be between 10-12 would fit Catherine's age at the time of the painting, her being about 11. However it has been noted that "Portrait of an Infanta" has similarities with a painting of Joanna held in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, but similarities have also been drawn to paintings of Catherine.[9]

      Catherine arrived in England in the autumn of 1501, with a retinue including George de Athequa. The couple later met on 4 November at Dogmersfield in Hampshire. Little is known about their first impressions of each other, but Arthur did write to his parents-in-law that he would be 'a true and loving husband' and told his parents that he was immensely happy to 'behold the face of his lovely bride'. They found that they were unable to speak to each other since they had learned different pronunciations of Latin.[10] Ten days later, on 14 November 1501, they were married at St. Paul's Cathedral, with Catherine being led up the aisle by Arthur's younger brother, Henry, the future Henry VIII.

      As wife and widow of Arthur
      Arthur was sent to Ludlow Castle on the borders of Wales, to preside over the Council of Wales and the Marches, as was his duty as Prince of Wales, and his bride accompanied him. A few months later, they both became ill, possibly with the sweating sickness which was sweeping the area. He died on 2 April 1502, and she almost died too, but recovered to find herself a widow. Catherine, as Princess of Wales, adopted as her personal motto "Not for my crown" along with her personal badge of the pomegranate crowned.[11]

      At this point, Henry VII faced the challenge of avoiding returning her dowry to her father. To avoid complications, it was agreed she would marry Henry VII's second son, Prince Henry, who was more than five years younger than she was. The marriage was delayed until Prince Henry was old enough, and Henry VII procrastinated so much that it was doubtful if the marriage would ever take place. She lived, almost as prisoner, at Durham House in London.[12] Some of her letters to her father, complaining of her treatment, have survived. She had little money and struggled to cope, as she had the wellbeing of her ladies-in-waiting to maintain as well as her own.

      Marriage to Arthur's brother depended on the Pope granting a dispensation because of the close relationship. Catherine testified her marriage to Arthur was never consummated. The matter was considered of minor importance at the time, as the Pope had the power to overrule any objections, whether or not they were for religious reasons.

      Queen of England (1509-1533)
      Their wedding took place on 11 June 1509, seven weeks after Henry VII's death. They were married in a private ceremony at Greenwich Church. As she claimed to have remained virgin during her first marriage, Catherine wore white with her hair loose - a symbol of virginity.

      On Saturday 23 June, the traditional eve-of-coronation procession to Westminster was greeted by an extremely large and very enthusiastic crowd. As was the custom, they spent the night before their coronation at the Tower of London. On Midsummer's Day, Sunday, 24 June 1509, Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon were anointed and crowned together by the Archbishop of Canterbury at a lavish ceremony at Westminster Abbey. Catherine again wore a white dress with her long hair flowing loose, and a coronet on her head set with pearls. As a queen consort she took no oath, nor was she invested with the sword or spurs. She was anointed on her head and breasts; the coronation ring was put on the fourth finger of her right hand, the crown on her head, the sceptre in her right hand and the ivory rod surmounted with the dove in her left. The coronation was followed by a banquet in Westminster Hall. Many new Knights of the Bath were created in honour of the coronation.

      A pamphlet by Stephen Hawes in 1509, contains a poem of praise on the occasion of the coronation of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, entitled "A joyfull medytacyon to all Englonde of the coronacyon of our moost naturall souerayne lorde kynge Henry the eyght", .

      Thomas More wrote about the coronation "This day is the end of our slavery, the fount of our liberty; the end of sadness, the beginning of joy." Henry was almost 18 when crowned and Catherine was 23.

      [edit] Marriage, pregnancies, and children
      The marriage seems to have been happy until it started to become likely that they would have no male heir. Catherine had seven pregnancies altogether. On New Year's day 1510, Catherine received her first Yuletide gift from Henry, it was a illuminated missal into which Henry had written himself "If your rememberance be according to my affection, I shall not be forgotten in your daily prayers, for I am yours, Henry R., forever" Catherine wrote her own inscription underneath it: "By daily proof you shall me find to be to you both loving and kind".[13] Later that year, on New Year's Eve 1510, Catherine had a stillborn girl. Also in 1510, when Catherine was pregnant for a second time, Henry VIII took his first known mistress, Elizabeth FitzWalter, who was also his second cousin. When her family found out about her affair with the King, they removed her from court and she was placed in a convent sixty miles away. Henry blamed Catherine for this, and confronted her. Catherine knew nothing about his infidelity so this led to an argument between the two, with Catherine reproaching Henry for his affair, and Henry berated her for lecturing him. The whole court learned of the incident and they ended up being "very vexed with each other". To the Spanish Ambassador's dismay, Catherine continued to censure Henry for his affair.[14] She later gave birth to the baby on New Year's Day 1511, the child was a boy and was named named Henry. However, he only lived for 52 days.

      In 1513, Catherine was pregnant again. Henry appointed her regent when he went to France on a military campaign. When the Scots invaded, they were defeated at the Battle of Flodden Field, with Catherine addressing the army, and riding north with some of the troops. She sent a letter and the bloodied coat of the King of Scots, James IV, who died in the battle to Henry.

      Henry returned from France, but Catherine lost the baby, another boy. He was either stillborn or died shortly afterward. In 1514, she had another stillborn son.

      On 18 February 1516, Catherine delivered a healthy girl. She was named Mary and christened three days later with great ceremony at The Church of Observant Friars.

      In 1517, she had a miscarriage and in 1518, Catherine became pregnant for the last time. She gave birth to a daughter in November, but the child was weak and lived only a few days.

      Catherine's religious dedication increased as she aged, as did her interest in academics. She continued to broaden her knowledge and provide training for her daughter. Education among women became fashionable, partly because of Catherine's influence. She also donated large sums of money to several colleges. Henry, however, still considered a male heir essential. The Tudor dynasty was new, and its legitimacy might still be tested. A long civil war (1135?54) had been fought the last time a woman, (Henry I of England's daughter, the Empress Matilda), had inherited the throne. The disasters of civil war were still fresh in living memory from the Wars of the Roses.

      In 1520, Catherine's nephew Emperor Charles V, of the Holy Roman Empire, paid a state visit to England, and she urged Henry to enter an alliance with Charles rather than with France. Immediately after his departure, she accompanied Henry to France on the celebrated visit to Francis I, the so-called Field of the Cloth of Gold. Within two years, war was declared against France and the Emperor was once again welcome in England, where plans were afoot to betroth him to Princess Mary.

      The King's Great Matter
      In 1525, Henry VIII became enamoured of Anne Boleyn, a maid-of-honour to Catherine, and began pursuing her.[15] By this time Catherine was no longer able to undergo further pregnancies. Henry began to believe that his marriage was cursed and sought confirmation from the Bible, which said if a man marries his brother's wife, the couple will be childless.[16] If she had lied when she said her marriage to Arthur had not been consummated, it meant that their marriage was wrong in the eyes of God. It is possible that the idea of annulment had been suggested to Henry much earlier than this, and is highly probable that it was motivated by his desire for a son. Before Henry's father, Henry VII, ascended the throne, England was beset by civil warfare over rival claims to the English crown, and Henry may have wanted to avoid a similar uncertainty over the succession.[17]

      It soon became the one absorbing object of Henry's desires to secure an annulment.[18] He set his hopes upon an appeal to the Holy See, acting independently of Thomas Cardinal Wolsey, whom he told nothing of his plans. William Knight, the King's secretary, was sent to Pope Clement VII to sue for an annulment, on the grounds that the dispensing bull of Pope Julius II was obtained by false pretences. When Henry spoke to Queen Catherine of Doctors' and Lawyers' opinions on their annulment, telling her that he had been assured that he was not her legitimate husband by learned doctors and lawyers, Catherine retorted :

      ? Doctors! You know yourself, without the help of any doctors that your case has no foundation! I care not a straw for your Doctors! For every Doctor and Lawyer that upholds your case I could find a thousand that would find our marriage good and valid![19] ?

      After the argument, Henry went to seek consolation in Anne Boleyn, but she told him that:

      ? Did I not tell you that whenever you argue with the Queen she is sure to have the upper hand?! I see that one fine morning you will succumb to her reasoning and cast me off![20] ?

      Catherine had the support of the people, in particular women. They were generally opposed to the annulment and the prospect of the King's mistress becoming Queen.

      As the Pope was, at that time, the prisoner of Catherine's nephew, Emperor Charles V, following the Sack of Rome in May 1527, Knight had difficulty in obtaining access to him. In the end, Henry's envoy had to return without accomplishing much. Henry now had no choice but to put his great matter into the hands of Thomas Wolsey, and Wolsey did all he could to secure a decision in Henry's favour.[21] How far the pope was influenced by Charles V, it is difficult to say, but it is clear Henry saw that the Pope was unlikely to give him an annulment from the Emperor's aunt.[22] The Pope forbade Henry to marry again before a decision was given in Rome. Wolsey had failed and was dismissed from public office in 1529. Wolsey then began a secret plot to have Anne Boleyn forced into exile and began communicating with Catherine and the Pope, to that end. When this was discovered, Henry ordered Wolsey's arrest and, had it not been for his death from terminal illness in 1530, he might have been executed for treason.[23] A year later, Catherine was banished from court and her old rooms were given to Anne Boleyn. When Archbishop of Canterbury William Warham died, the Boleyn family's chaplain, Thomas Cranmer, was appointed to the vacant position.[24] In November 1531, Catherine wrote to her nephew:

      ? My tribulations are so great, my life so disturbed by the plans daily invented to further the King's wicked intention, the surprises which the King gives me, with certain persons of his council, are so mortal, and my treatment is what God knows, that it is enough to shorten ten lives, much more mine. ?

      In the Legatine Trial of 1529, which was appointed to make a decision regarding the annulment of Henry and Catherine's marriage (although it never did) Catherine wore an expensive red and yellow dress, made a brave speech, ignoring the summons of the crier and counsellors, she went up to Henry, bowed, then dropped to her knees and said:

      ? Sir, I beseech you for all the love that hath been between us, and for the love of God, let me have justice and right. Take of me some pity and compassion, for I am a poor woman, and a stranger, born out of your dominion. I have here no assured friend and much less indifferent counsel. I flee to you, as to the head of justice within this realm. Alas, Sir, where have I offended you? Or what occasion have you of displeasure, that you intend to put me from you? I take God and all the world to witness that I have been to you a true, humble and obedient wife, ever comfortable to your will and pleasure. I have been always well pleased and contented with all things wherein you had any delight or dalliance. I never grudged a word or countenance, or showed a spark or discontent. I loved all those whom ye loved, only for your sake, whether I had cause or no, and whether they were my friends or enemies. This 20 years or more I have been your true wife and by me ye have had divers children, although it hath pleased God to call them from this world, which hath been no default in me. And when ye had me at first, I take God to my judge; I was a true maid, without touch of man. And whether this be true or no, I put it to your conscience [Catherine paused, then continued] If there be any just cause by the law that you can allege against me, either dishonesty or any other impediment, to put me from you, I am well content to depart to my shame and dishonour. If there be none I must lowly beseech you, let me remain in my former estate and receive justice at your princely hands. The King your father was accounted in his day as a second Solomon for wisdom, and my father Ferdinand was esteemed one of the wisest Kings ever to rule Spain, It is not therefore to be doubted but they gathered such wise, as learned men, as there is at present time in both realms, who thought the marriage between you and me good and lawful. It is a wonder to hear what new inventions are invented against me; who never intended but honesty that cause me to stand the order and judgement of this new court, wherein you may do me much wrong, if you intend any cruelty. For ye may must understand that they cannot be indifferent counsellors which be your subjects, and taken out of your counsel beforehand, and dare not, for your displeasure disobey you will and intent. Therefore, I humbly require you to spare me the extremity of this new court and if ye will not, to God I commit my cause. ?

      She then walked out, the crier shouted three times for her to come back into Court, she ignored him and said "It is no indifferent court therefore I will not tarry".

      When Henry decided to annul his marriage to Catherine, John Fisher became her most trusted counsellor and one of her chief supporters. He appeared in the legates' court on her behalf, where he shocked people with the directness of his language, and by declaring that, like John the Baptist, he was ready to die on behalf of the indissolubility of marriage. Henry was so enraged by this that wrote a long Latin address to the legates in answer to Fisher's speech. Fisher's copy of this still exists, with his manuscript annotations in the margin which show how little he feared Henry's anger. The removal of the cause to Rome ended Fisher's role in the matter, but Henry never forgave him.

      Later years (1533-1536)
      Upon returning to Dover from a meeting with King Francis I of France in Calais, Henry married Anne Boleyn in a secret ceremony, and she soon became pregnant.[25] Events now began to move at a quick pace. On 23 May 1533, Cranmer, sitting in judgment at a special court convened at Dunstable Priory to rule on the validity of Henry's marriage to Catherine, declared that marriage null and void. Five days later, on 28 May 1533, Cranmer declared the marriage of Henry and Anne valid.[26]

      Until the end of her life, Catherine would refer to herself as Henry's only lawful wedded wife and England's only rightful queen; her faithful servants continued to address her by that title, and most of the population of Europe believed her to be Queen, and Anne just a concubine and her daughter a bastard. Henry refused her the right to any title but "Dowager Princess of Wales" (in recognition of her position as his brother's widow).

      In 1535 she was transferred to the decaying and remote Kimbolton Castle. Confining herself to one room, leaving it only to attend Mass, and fasting most of the time, and wearing the hair shirt of the Order of St. Francis, she prepared to meet her end. While she was permitted to receive occasional visitors, she was forbidden to see her daughter, Mary. They were also forbidden to communicate but discreet sympathizers ferried letters between mother and daughter. Henry offered them both better quarters and each other's company if they would acknowledge Anne Boleyn as his new Queen. Neither did.

      In late December 1535, sensing death was near, she made her will, and wrote to her nephew, the Emperor Charles V, asking him to protect her daughter. She then penned one final letter to Henry, her "most dear lord and husband"[27]:

      My most dear lord, King and husband,

      The hour of my death now drawing on, the tender love I owe you forceth me, my case being such, to commend myself to you, and to put you in remembrance with a few words of the health and safeguard of your soul which you ought to prefer before all worldly matters, and before the care and pampering of your body, for the which you have cast me into many calamities and yourself into many troubles. For my part, I pardon you everything, and I wish to devoutly pray God that He will pardon you also. For the rest, I commend unto you our daughter Mary, beseeching you to be a good father unto her, as I have heretofore desired. I entreat you also, on behalf of my maids, to give them marriage portions, which is not much, they being but three. For all my other servants I solicit the wages due them, and a year more, lest they be unprovided for. Lastly, I make this vow, that mine eyes desire you above all things.

      Katharine the Quene.

      She died at Kimbolton Castle, on 7 January 1536. The following day, news of her death reached the King. According to the chronicler Edward Hall, Queen Anne wore yellow for the mourning, which has been interpreted in various ways; Polydore Vergil apparently interpreted this to mean that Anne did not mourn. [28] However, Chapuys reported that it was actually King Henry who decked himself in yellow, celebrating the news and making a great show of Princess Elizabeth to his courtiers. [29] This was seen as distasteful and vulgar by many. Rumours then circulated that she had been poisoned by Anne or Henry, or both, as Anne had threatened to murder both Catherine and Mary on several occasions. The rumours were born after the apparent discovery during her embalming that there was a black growth on her heart that might have been caused by poisoning.[30] Modern medical experts are in agreement that her heart's discolouration was due not to poisoning, but to cancer, something which was not understood at the time. She was buried in Peterborough Cathedral with the ceremony due to a Dowager Princess of Wales, not a queen. Henry did not attend the funeral and refused to allow Mary to attend either.

      [edit] Legacy, Memory, and Historiography
      In the reign of her daughter, Mary I of England her marriage to Henry VIII was declared "good and valid". Her tomb in Peterborough Cathedral can be seen and there is hardly ever a time when it is not decorated with flowers or pomegranates, her heraldic symbol. It bears the title Katharine Queen of England. Peterborough is twinned with the Castilian city of Alcalá de Henares, her birthplace, as a tribute to Catherine, and children from schools in the two places have learned about each other as part of the twinning venture, and artists have even come over from Alcala de Heneres to paint Katharine's tombstone. In the 20th century, another Queen Consort, Mary of Teck, had her grave upgraded and there are now banners there denoting her as a queen of England. Every year at Peterbourgh Cathedral there is a service in her memory. On the service commemorating the 470th anniversary of her death, the Spanish Ambassador to the United Kingdom attended. The service started with a procession, led by the Mayor, from the Peterbourgh town hall, invited guests then joined the parade en route, before taking up their position in the Cathedral, music was played by pupils from the King's School, and a trumpeter heralded the start of the procession, then as they entered the Cathedral, music was played from the restored organ. After the service, people were able to view portraits of Catharine of Aragon drawn by local schoolchildren for an art competition, which the ambassador then judged. There is a statue of her in her birthplace of Alcalá de Henares, as a young woman holding a book and a rose. [31]

      Catherine has remained a popular biographical subject to the present day. The American historian Garrett Mattingly was the author of a popular biography Catherine of Aragon in 1942. In 1966, Katherine and her many supporters at court were the subjects of Catherine of Aragon and her Friends, a biography by John E. Paul. In 1967, Mary M. Luke wrote the first book of her Tudor trilogy, Catherine the Queen which portrayed her and the controversial era of English history through which she lived.

      recent years, the historian Alison Weir covered her life extensively in her biography The Six Wives of Henry VIII, first published in 1991. Antonia Fraser did the same in her own 1992 biography of the same title; as did the British historian David Starkey in his 2003 book Six Wives: The Queens of Henry VIII.[32] [33] [34]

      [edit] Spelling of her name
      "Catherine", or "Katherine" is the most common modern English spelling of her name. Catherine herself signed her name "Katherine", "Katharine" and sometimes "Katharina". In a letter to her, Arthur, her first husband addressed her as "Princess Katerine". Rarely were names, particularly first names, written in an exact manner during the sixteenth century and it is evident from Katherine's own letters that she endorsed different variations.[35]

      The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography lists her name as Katherine[36]

      Loveknots built into his various palaces by her husband, Henry VIII, display the initials "H & K", as do other items belonging to Henry and Catherine, including gold goblets, a gold salt cellar, basins of gold, and candlesticks. Her tomb in Peterborough Cathedral is marked "Katharine Queen of England".[37]

      Titles and styles
      16 December 1485 ? 14 November 1501: Infanta Catalina of Castile and Aragon
      14 November 1501 ? 2 April 1502:Her Highness The Princess of Wales, Duchess of Cornwall, Countess of Chester [38]
      2 April 1502 ? 11 June 1509: The Dowager Princess of Wales, Dowager Duchess of Cornwall, Dowager Countess of Chester [39]
      11 June 1509 ? 23 May 1533: Her Grace The Queen of England
      c. 1519 ? 23 May 1533: Her Majesty The Queen of England [40]
      23 May 1533 ? 7 January 1536: Her Highness The Dowager Princess of Wales, Dowager Duchess of Cornwall, Dowager Countess of Chester [39][41]

      ^ Alison Weir,The Six Wives of Henry VIII', p.87
      ^ Alison Weir,The Six Wives of Henry VIII', p.123
      ^ Antonia Fraser,The Wives of Henry VIII', p.24
      ^ Alison Weir, The Six Wives of Henry VIII,15
      ^ Weir, p.1
      ^ Antonia Fraser, The Wives of Henry VIII',p.12
      ^ Weir, p.20
      ^ Maria Dowling,Humanism in the age of Henry VIII(Published 1986), p.17
      ^ Antonia Fraser, The Wives of Henry VIII', p.25
      ^ Weir, Alison,The Six Wives of Henry VIII, p.34
      ^ Williams, p.15
      ^ Weir, p.96
      ^ Alison Weir, The Six Wives of Henry VIII, pages 107 and 108
      ^ Scarisbrick, p.154.
      ^ Leviticus 20:21
      ^ Lacey, p.70.
      ^ Brigden, p.114.
      ^ Alison Weir, p.213
      ^ Alison Weir, p.213
      ^ "Henry VIII" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
      ^ Morris, p.166.
      ^ Haigh p.92f
      ^ "Clement VII" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
      ^ Starkey, pp. 462?464.
      ^ Williams, p.124.
      ^ Sharon Turner, The History of England from the Earliest Period to the Death of Elizabeth (Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green,1828)
      ^ Warnicke, p. 187.
      ^ Warnicke, p. 188.
      ^ Lofts, p.139.
      ^ Starkey, David, "Six Wives: The Queens of Henry VIII" Part I
      ^ Weir, Alison, "The Six Wives of Henry VIII" Part I
      ^ Fraser, Antonia, "The Six Wives of Henry VIII" Part I
      ^ Currently though the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography lists her name as "Katherine of Aragon". Katherine's endorsement of different spellings can be identified in numerous letters, signing herself as 'Katherine the Quene' in a letter to Wolsey in 1513 and as 'Katharine' in her final letter to Henry VIII, dating to Jan 1536.
      ^ Antonia Fraser, The Six Wives of Hnery VIII, pages 57-58
      ^ As spouse of the Prince of Wales, Catherine held the titles of Princess of Wales, Duchess of Cornwall, and Countess of Chester.
      ^ a b As a widow, she was Dowager Princess of Wales, Dowager Duchess of Cornwall, and Dowager Countess of Chester.
      ^ Around 1519 Henry VIII decided Majesty should become the style of the Kings and Queens of England. "Majesty", however, was not used exclusively; it arbitrarily alternated with both "Highness" and "Grace", even in official documents.
      ^ Since Catherine never acknowledged the annulment of her marriage, she styled herself as Queen until her death.
      ^ a b Lundy, Darryl, thePeerage,, retrieved on 2007-10-25
      ^ a b Lundy, Darryl, thePeerage,, retrieved on 2007-10-25
      ^ a b Lundy, Darryl, thePeerage,, retrieved on 2007-10-25
      ^ She was the daughter John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster to his first wife Blanche of Lancaster, making her half-sister of Katherine of Aragon's maternal great-grandmother Katherine of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster to his second wife Constance of Castile.
      ^ Lundy, Darryl, thePeerage,, retrieved on 2007-10-25

      [edit] References
      Brigden, Susan (2000). New Worlds, Lost Worlds.
      Fraser, Antonia (1992). The Wives of Henry VIII. ISBN 067973001X
      Haigh, Christopher (1993). English Reformations.
      Lacey, Robert (1972). The Life and Times of Henry VIII.
      Lofts, Norah (1979). Anne Boleyn. ISBN 0-698-11005-6.
      Morris, T. A. (1998). Europe and England in the Sixteenth Century.
      Starkey, David (2003). Six Wives: The Queens of Henry VIII. ISBN 0060005505
      Warnicke, Retha M. (1991). The Rise and Fall of Anne Boleyn. ISBN 0521406773
      Weir, Alison (1991). The Six Wives of Henry VIII. ISBN 0802136834
      Williams, Neville (1971). Henry VIII and his Court.

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