Alexander III (The Glorious) Canmore (King of Scotland)

Male 1241 - 1286  (44 years)

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  • Name Alexander III (The Glorious) Canmore (King of Scotland) 
    Born 04 Sep 1241  Roxburgh Castle Roxburgh, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Died 19 Mar 1286 
    Person ID I657  King of Scots
    Last Modified 10 Feb 2009 

    Father Alexander II (The Peaceful) Canmore (King of Scotland),   b. 24 Aug 1198, Haddington, East Lothian, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 06 Jul 1249, Kerrera, Hebrides, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 50 years) 
    Mother Marie de Coucy,   b. 1218,   d. 1285  (Age 67 years) 
    Married 15 May 1239 
    Family ID F270  Group Sheet

    Family 1 Margaret Queen of Scots,   b. 29 Sep 1240,   d. 26 Feb 1275  (Age 34 years) 
    Married 26 Dec 1251  York Minster, York, Yorkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    +1. Margaret Canmore (Of Scotland),   b. 28 Feb 1260,   d. 09 Apr 1283  (Age 23 years)
     2. Alexander Canmore (Prince of Scotland),   b. 21 Jan 1264, Jedburgh, Roxburghshire, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 17 Jan 1284, Lindores Abbey, Fife, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 19 years)
     3. David Canmore,   b. 20 Mar 1272,   d. Jun 1281, Stirling Castle, Stirling, Stirlingshire, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 9 years)
    Last Modified 10 Feb 2009 
    Family ID F271  Group Sheet

    Family 2 Yolande of Montfort,   b. Unknown 
    Married 14 Oct 1275 
    Last Modified 10 Feb 2009 
    Family ID F273  Group Sheet

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 04 Sep 1241 - Roxburgh Castle Roxburgh, Scotland Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarried - 26 Dec 1251 - York Minster, York, Yorkshire, England Link to Google Earth
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    Pin Legend  : Address       : Location       : City/Town       : County/Shire       : State/Province       : Country       : Not Set

  • Photos
    Alexander III
    Alexander III
    Personal Collection

  • Notes 
    • Alexander III (Medieval Gaelic: Alaxandair mac Alaxandair; Modern Gaelic: Alasdair mac Alasdair) (4 September 1241 ? 19 March 1286), King of Scots, was born at Roxburgh, the only son of Alexander II by his second wife Marie de Coucy. Alexander's father died on 6 July 1249 and he became king at the age of eight, inaugurated at Scone on 13 July 1249.

      The years of his minority featured an embittered struggle for the control of affairs between two rival parties, the one led by Walter Comyn, Earl of Menteith, the other by Alan Durward, Justiciar of Scotia. The former dominated the early years of Alexander's reign. At the marriage of Alexander to Margaret of England in 1251, Henry III seized the opportunity to demand from his son-in-law homage for the Scottish kingdom, but Alexander did not comply. In 1255 an interview between the English and Scottish kings at Kelso led to Menteith and his party losing to Durward's party. But though disgraced, they still retained great influence, and two years later, seizing the person of the king, they compelled their rivals to consent to the erection of a regency representative of both parties.

      On attaining his majority at the age of 21 in 1262, Alexander declared his intention of resuming the projects on the Western Isles which the death of his father thirteen years before had cut short. He laid a formal claim before the Norwegian king Haakon. Haakon rejected the claim, and in the following year responded with a formidable invasion. Sailing around the west coast of Scotland he halted off the Isle of Arran, and negotiations commenced. Alexander artfully prolonged the talks until the autumn storms should begin. At length Haakon, weary of delay, attacked, only to encounter a terrific storm which greatly damaged his ships. The Battle of Largs (October 1263) proved indecisive, but even so, Haakon's position was hopeless. Baffled, he turned homewards, but died in Orkney on 15 December 1263. The Isles now lay at Alexander's feet, and in 1266 Haakon's successor concluded the Treaty of Perth by which he ceded the Isle of Man and the Western Isles to Scotland in return for a monetary payment. Norway retained only Orkney and Shetland in the area. In 1284, Alexander invested the title of Lord of the Isles in the head of the Macdonald family, Angus Macdonald, and over the next two centuries the Macdonald lords operated as if they were kings in their own right, frequently opposing the Scottish monarch.

      Alexander had married Princess Margaret of England, a daughter of King Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence, on 26 December 1251. She died in 1274, after they had three children:

      Margaret (28 February 1260 ? 9 April 1283), who married King Eirik II of Norway
      Alexander of Scotland (21 January 1263 Jedburgh ? 28 January 1283 Lindores Abbey); buried in Dunfermline Abbey
      David (20 March 1272 ? June 1281 Stirling Castle); buried in Dunfermline Abbey
      According to the Lanercost Chronicle, Alexander did not spend his decade as a widower alone: "he used never to forbear on account of season nor storm, nor for perils of flood or rocky cliffs, but would visit none too creditably nuns or matrons, virgins or widows as the fancy seized him, sometimes in disguise."

      Towards the end of Alexander's reign, the death of all three of his children within a few years made the question of the succession one of pressing importance. In 1284 he induced the Estates to recognize as his heir-presumptive his granddaughter Margaret, the "Maid of Norway". The need for a male heir led him to contract a second marriage to Yolande de Dreux on 1 November 1285.

      But the sudden death of the king dashed all such hopes. Alexander died in a fall from his horse in the dark while riding to visit the queen at Kinghorn in Fife on 19 March 1286, having spent the evening at Edinburgh Castle overseeing a meeting with royal advisors. He was advised by them not to make the journey over to Fife because of weather conditions, but travelled anyway. Alexander became separated from his guides and it is assumed that in the dark his horse lost its footing. The 44-year old king was found dead on the shore the following morning. Some texts have said that he fell off a cliff. Although there is no cliff at the site where his body was found there is a very steep rocky embankment - which would have been fatal in the dark. After Alexander's death, his strong realm was plunged into a period of darkness that would eventually lead to war with England. Had Alexander, who was a strong monarch, lived, things might have worked out differently (Ashley 2002, p. 156). He was buried in Dunfermline Abbey.

      As Alexander left no surviving children the heir to the throne was his unborn child by Queen Yolande. When Yolande's pregnancy ended in a still-birth in November of 1286, Alexander's granddaughter Margaret became the heir. Margaret died, still uncrowned, on her way to Scotland in 1290. The inauguration of John Balliol as king on 30 November 1292 ended the six years of interregnum when the Guardians of Scotland governed the land.

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