William  I (The Lion) Canmore (King of Scotland)

William I (The Lion) Canmore (King of Scotland)

Male 1142 - 1214  (72 years)

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  • Name William I (The Lion) Canmore (King of Scotland) 
    Born 1142  Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Died 04 Dec 1214  Stirling, Stirlingshire, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Buried Arbroath Abbey Cemetery Arbroath, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID I252  King of Scots
    Last Modified 24 Sep 2012 

    Father Henry Canmore,   b. 1114, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 12 Jun 1152  (Age 38 years) 
    Mother Adeline de Warenne,   b. 1120, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1178, Haddington, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 58 years) 
    Married 1139  England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F109  Group Sheet

    Family Ermengarde de Beaumont (Queen of Scotland),   b. Unknown,   d. 12 Feb 1233, Fife, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Married 05 Sep 1186  Woodstock Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Children 
     1. Margaret Canmore,   b. 1193, Haddington, East Lothian, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1259  (Age 66 years)
     2. Isabella Canmore,   b. 1195, Haddington, East Lothian, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1253  (Age 58 years)
    +3. Alexander II (The Peaceful) Canmore (King of Scotland),   b. 24 Aug 1198, Haddington, East Lothian, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 06 Jul 1249, Kerrera, Hebrides, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 50 years)
     4. Marjorie Canmore,   b. 1200, Haddington, East Lothian, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1244  (Age 44 years)
    Last Modified 10 Feb 2009 
    Family ID F268  Group Sheet

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 1142 - Scotland Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarried - 05 Sep 1186 - Woodstock Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 04 Dec 1214 - Stirling, Stirlingshire, Scotland Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsBuried - - Arbroath Abbey Cemetery Arbroath, Scotland Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Maps 
     = Link to Google Earth 
    Pin Legend  : Address       : Location       : City/Town       : County/Shire       : State/Province       : Country       : Not Set

  • Photos
    William Canmore known as Willima the Lion
    William Canmore known as Willima the Lion
    Personal Collection

    Headstones
    William the Lion
    William the Lion
    Personal Collection

  • Notes 
    • William I (Mediaeval Gaelic: Uilliam mac Eanric; Modern Gaelic: Uilleam mac Eanraig), known as the Lion or Garbh, "the Rough", (1142/1143 ? 4 December 1214) reigned as King of Scots from 1165 to 1214. His reign was the second longest in Scottish history before the Act of Union with England in 1707, (James VI's was the longest 1567?1625). He became King following his brother Malcolm IV's death on 9 December 1165 and was crowned on 24 December 1165.

      In contrast to his deeply religious, frail brother, William was powerfully built, redheaded, and headstrong. He was an effective monarch whose reign was marred by his ill-fated attempts to regain control of Northumbria from the Normans.

      History
      Traditionally, William is credited with founding Arbroath Abbey, the site of the later Declaration of Arbroath. Interestingly, he was not known as "The Lyon" during his own lifetime, and the sobriquet did not relate to his tenacious character or his military prowess. William adopted the use of the Lion Rampant by his right to do so under the law of Heraldry.

      The title "Lion" was attached to him because of his flag or standard, a red lion rampant (with a forked tail) on a yellow background. This (with the addition of a 'double tressure fleury counter-fleury' border) went on to become the Royal standard of Scotland, still used today but quartered with those of England and of Ireland. It became attached to him because the chronicler Fordun called him the "Lion of Justice".

      William also inherited the title of Earl of Northumbria in 1152. However he had to give up this title to King Henry II of England in 1157. This caused trouble after William became king, since he spent a lot of effort trying to regain Northumbria.

      William was a key rebel in the Revolt of 1173?1174 against Henry II. In 1174, at the Battle of Alnwick, during a raid in support of the revolt, William recklessly charged the English troops himself, shouting, "Now we shall see which of us are good knights!" He was unhorsed and captured by Henry's troops led by Ranulf de Glanvill and taken in chains to Newcastle, then Northampton, and then transferred to Falaise in Normandy. Henry then sent an army to Scotland and occupied it. As ransom and to regain his kingdom, William had to acknowledge Henry as his feudal superior and agree to pay for the cost of the English army's occupation of Scotland by taxing the Scots. This he did by signing the Treaty of Falaise. He was then allowed to return to Scotland. In 1175 he swore fealty to Henry II at York Castle.

      The Treaty of Falaise remained in force for the next fifteen years. Then Richard the Lionheart, needing money to take part in the Third Crusade, agreed to terminate it in return for 10,000 silver marks.

      Marriage and Death
      Due to the terms of the Treaty of Falaise, Henry II had the right to choose William's bride. As a result, William married Ermengarde de Beaumont, a granddaughter of King Henry I of England, at Woodstock Palace in 1186. Edinburgh Castle was her dowry. The marriage was not very successful, and it was many years before she bore him an heir. William and Ermengarde's children were:

      Margaret (1193?1259), married Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent.
      Isabella (1195?1253), married Roger Bigod, 4th Earl of Norfolk.
      Alexander II of Scotland (1198?1249).
      Marjorie (1200?44), married Gilbert Marshal, 4th Earl of Pembroke.
      William died in Stirling in 1214 and lies buried in Arbroath Abbey. His son, Alexander II, succeeded him as king, reigning from 1214 to 1250.


      Lore
      Curiously William is recorded in 1206 as having cured a case of Scrofula by his touching and blessing a child with the ailment whilst at York


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